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Congratulations!

Congratulations!

Today the National Coalition for Literacy celebrates the inauguration of President Joseph Robinette Biden, Jr. and Vice President Kamala Devi Harris! 

Throughout his career, President Biden has been a consistent advocate for adult education, most notably in his promotion of adult career pathways innovation in the White House report Ready to Work: Job-Driven Training and American Opportunity that accompanied the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act authorization in 2014. In that report he spoke of adult education programs as “particularly important to those hardest hit by the twists and turns of global competition, technological changes, economic isolation, or inadequate education opportunities.”

As the Biden Administration begins to address the economic fallout of the global pandemic and the systemic inequities that it has both revealed and exacerbated, adult education will continue to play a pivotal role. Adult education programs seek to counteract systemic inequities in education that disproportionately affect Black, Brown, Indigenous, and immigrant/refugee community members by providing instruction in foundational literacy and numeracy skills, high school equivalency, and workforce/college readiness. As recent Survey of Adult Skills data shows, in the United States, 19 percent of adults are profoundly in need of literacy skills development and 29 percent lack critical numeracy skills. These adults are overrepresented in communities of color—the same communities that have been most adversely affected by the COVID-induced health and economic challenges that are rooted in systemic inequity.

Adult education in the United States has deep roots in social justice efforts that recognize and promote literacy and learning as central to access, voice, and action for all. The very first adult schools – Massachusetts in 1842; California in 1856 – were community-level efforts focused on immigrant integration through English language and civics instruction, and basic literacy for adults with limited formal education. During the civil rights protests of the 1960s, a federal investment in adult education was recommended as one strategy for mitigating the effects of structural and systemic racism. Over the decades since then, adult education has continued its mission of opening the doors to economic opportunity and full participation in society through education. While the recent Survey of Adult Skills data demonstrates the persistence of inequities, the power of adult education to address them and promote social justice is documented in studies such as The Case for Investment in Adult Education. As the Education Strategy Group has noted, “education holds the key to economic revitalization and must play a central role in addressing systemic inequities.”

During the months of the pandemic, adult education programs have turned to remote teaching to continue providing services. Yet this instruction has been inaccessible to many in adult education’s learner population due to limitations on digital access in rural and low-income areas of the country. Educational inclusion and digital inclusion now go hand in hand, and adult education’s ability to counter the effects of educational inequity and systemic racism increasingly depend on complementary investments in digital infrastructure and access to internet-enabled devices and digital skills instruction.

In states and communities across the country, adult education’s power lies in its ability to meet the moment and rise to the challenge. The National Coalition for Literacy welcomes President Biden and Vice President Harris and encourages them to build on the nation’s commitment to educational equity by recognizing adult education’s critical work, investing in it, and rewarding it.

Access and Inclusion: Adult Education and Literacy Priorities for 2021 and Beyond

Access and Inclusion: Adult Education and Literacy Priorities for 2021 and Beyond

Memo submitted to the Biden-Harris Transition Team by the National Coalition for Literacy and the Open Door Collective, December 2020

With its theme of “build back better,” the incoming Biden-Harris administration has named economic recovery and racial equity among its top priorities—and a spectrum of advocacy organizations have noted that “education holds the key to economic revitalization and must play a central role in addressing systemic inequities” (Education Strategy Group, 2020). An adult career and technical education system that promotes attainment of postsecondary credentials, including certificates with labor market value and associate’s and bachelor’s degrees, is the foundation for a society that ensures access to family-sustaining employment and the skills required for full participation in community life for all of its members.

However, if building back better is to include all individuals in American society, it must also open opportunities for those adults who are not yet ready to participate fully in postsecondary credentialing and education programs. That is, it must include adult basic education, which gives youth and adults ages 16 and older essential skills in literacy, numeracy, English language acquisition, and digital technology use within the context of high school equivalency, workforce preparation, family literacy, and transition-to-employment and postsecondary education programming (Minnesota State, 2020; OCTAE, 2020; Open Door Collective, 2020). In the United States, 19 percent of adults are profoundly in need of literacy skills development and 29 percent lack critical numeracy skills (NCES, 2018). These adults are overrepresented in communities of color—the same communities that have been most adversely affected by the COVID-induced health and economic challenges that are rooted in systemic inequity.

Adult basic education plays a critical role in a community’s overall education continuum, and all adults must have equitable access to educational opportunity. We offer three overarching recommendations for a powerful federal investment in adult education and literacy that will enable all of America’s people to participate in building back better.

1. Integrate adult basic education into an intentionally coordinated lifelong formal education and training system that spans childhood through adult years and works at every level to disconnect the far-too-predictable links between race/ethnicity, English language proficiency, socioeconomic status, and education outcomes. A fully integrated education structure would provide clear, well-articulated paths and benchmarks for development of the skills and knowledge needed to obtain and retain quality employment, support family well-being, and participate fully in their communities, and it would make these services available to all adults who need them. Many of the pieces of such a system are already in place, and the field has good models of how coordination among those pieces can work. Federal investment in a sustained effort to bring the system together in locally appropriate ways throughout the country will increase the effectiveness of all of its parts.

2. Implement national infrastructure projects that will empower adults to participate in adult basic education, career development, and postsecondary programs.

  • Digital inclusion. Lack of access to high-speed internet connections, home computers, and digital skills training disproportionately affects low-income adults and members of minority communities. As adult basic education has transitioned almost completely to online instruction due to the COVID-19 pandemic, programs have discovered that this type of delivery can mitigate some of the traditional barriers to participation, including transportation and child care. However, major obstacles remain for adults who do not have the digital access or skills to take advantage on online learning. A federal commitment to extend high-speed broadband access to all regions of the country, provide the basic digital skills training that will enable all adults to take advantage of that access, and provide professional development for adult educators in the most effective ways of using online tools for education will transform educational opportunity for adults and children in low-income and minority communities.
  • Community infrastructure. Inadequate access to transportation, stable and affordable housing, child care, and health care is characteristic of communities experiencing systemic inequity, and these deficiencies are among the top reasons cited for nonparticipation in in-person adult education (Patterson, 2018). Conversely, consistent participation in adult education correlates highly with achievement of educational goals and increased earnings potential (Morgan, Waite, & Diecuch, 2017). “To engage in education and training for a family supporting job, a person’s basic needs – food, housing, medical care, and childcare – must be met. That means our nation’s safety net programs have a transformative opportunity: To help millions of individuals who can and want to train for a family-sustaining career but need supports along the way” (National Skills Coalition, 2020). By increasing adults’ ability to persist in pursuing educational goals, a federal investment in infrastructure will build community strength and resilience, directly addressing the effects of systemic inequity (Open Door Collective, 2020).

3. Reorient adult basic education accountability and outcomes reporting toward a competency-based approach that promotes and demonstrates progress toward the full spectrum of adults’ learning and self-development objectives. The accountability system currently in place through the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) allows only for outcome measures related to increased scores on standardized tests, attainment of high school equivalency, entry into/completion of workforce training or postsecondary education, and entry into the workforce. These measures reflect some of the important goals and motivations of adult basic education participants, but they ignore other essential ones, such as “assisting their children with schoolwork, understanding and addressing their own health issues or those of family members, or participating in civic affairs” (Reder, 2020). Adult basic education programs have extensive insight into the variety of outcomes that their adult learners are able to achieve, but the limits imposed by the current compliance-focused system prevent them from encouraging pursuit of or reporting on those outcomes. A federal initiative that decouples accountability from a narrow focus on assessment and encourages a broader perspective on results would more equitably and appropriately support the potential of adult basic education programs and the learners they serve. A multiple measures, competency-based approach that is valued by all stakeholders, valid, equitable, and aligned with the goals of the individual and the community will modernize the adult education accountability system to meet its larger role in advancing an inclusive recovery.

The National Coalition for Literacy and the Open Door Collective appreciate the opportunity to provide input on education to the Biden transition team. We offer these recommendations in hopes that they will help the incoming administration address educational inequities in our country. We welcome opportunities to work with new and continuing Education Department staff to promote educational equity for all.

About the Submitters

The National Coalition for Literacy (NCL) is an alliance of the leading national and regional organizations dedicated to advancing adult education, family literacy, and English language acquisition in the United States. NCL’s mission is to advance adult education, family literacy, and English language acquisition in the United States by increasing public awareness of the need to increase programs and funding; by promoting effective public policy; and by serving as an authoritative resource on national adult education issues. Through collaborative efforts with other advocacy organizations and individuals, NCL ensures that leaders and legislators at the national level make informed decisions about policies, regulations, and funding for adult education and family literacy. We envision a nation in which all adults are able to fulfill their potential and meet their goals through accessing high quality adult education and literacy services provided by an integrated and well-developed system.

The Open Door Collective (ODC) is dedicated to reshaping U.S. society to have dramatically less poverty and economic inequality and more civic engagement and participation in all our society has to offer. As professionals working in adult education, social services and poverty reduction, ODC members believe that adult basic skills education and lifelong learning programs can help open the doors of opportunity for everyone to healthier, more prosperous and satisfying lives.  ODC members have expertise in connecting adult basic skills education to employment and training, health care, and family and social services.  We believe that helping all adults to acquire and use English language, basic literacy, numeracy, high school equivalency, college readiness, and technology skills will improve everyone’s economic outcomes, broaden social participation and move us much closer to the kind of society in which we all want to live.

References

Education Strategy Group. (2020). A return to leadership: Education priorities for he Biden administration. Retrieved from http://edstrategy.org/a-return-to-leadership-education-priorities-for-the-biden-administration/.

Minnesota State Careerwise. (2020). Adult basic education. Retrieved from https://careerwise.minnstate.edu/education/abe.html.

Morgan, K., Waite, P., & Diecuch, M. (2017). The case for investment in adult basic education. Retrieved from https://www.proliteracy.org/Portals/0/Reder%20Research.pdf?ver=2017-03-24-151533-647.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). PIAAC Results. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/piaac/current_results.asp.

National Skills Coalition. (2020). Skills for an inclusive economic recovery: An agenda for President Biden and Congress. Retrieved from https://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Skills-for-IER-Federal-Agenda.pdf.

Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education, Division of Adult Education and Literacy. (2020). Adult education and literacy. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/AdultEd/index.html.

Open Door Collective. (2020). An open door out of poverty. Retrieved from https://www.opendoorcollective.org/uploads/1/4/3/8/14381196/an_open_door_out_of_poverty_sep_12.pdf.

Patterson, M. (2018). Critiquing adult participation in education, report 2: Motivation around adult education. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/560d5789e4b015789104a87e/t/5b252a26f950b7fedffb4b18/1529162279757/CAPE+Report+2+Motivation+around+adult+education.pdf.

Reder, S. (2020). A lifelong and life-wide framework for adult literacy education. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1249006.pdf.

Calling for a Justice Department Committed to Civil Rights

Calling for a Justice Department Committed to Civil Rights

The NCL has joined a wide-ranging group of advocacy organizations led by the Leadership Conference on Civil & Human Rights in calling for the incoming Biden-Harris Administration to select an attorney general and senior Justice Department leadership who have demonstrated deep commitment to civil rights enforcement. NCL’s endorsement of the statement reflects its conviction that education is a basic human right.

The statement reads:

The Biden-Harris administration must make civil rights enforcement a priority, and the Department of Justice is a pivotal leader in that effort. We need an attorney general and other senior leadership who are committed to ending discrimination; addressing white supremacy and hate violence; and advancing racial, gender, disability, ethnic, religious, immigrant, and LGBTQ justice. We need leaders who understand the authority, processes, and mission of the department, and who will defend the bedrock principle of equal justice for all people in America.

We expect the department to be led with integrity, impartiality, and independence. Americans deserve an attorney general with a deep respect for the fundamental principles of liberty and justice for all, a demonstrated commitment to protecting and advancing the civil rights of everyone, and an unyielding dedication to transforming the criminal legal system.

We look forward to working with the new department leadership and holding them accountable to achieve these goals.

Read the list of endorsing organizations here.

Comments on the Revised Naturalization Civics Test

Comments on the Revised Naturalization Civics Test

In mid-November 2020, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) released a revised version of the civics test that is required for people who were not born in the United States and wish to become citizens. NCL has significant concerns about the revised test, and has submitted a letter expressing those concerns through the response channel provided by USCIS. The text below is excerpted from that letter.


Mr. Kenneth Cuccinelli  
Senior Official Performing the Duties of Director 
United States Department of Homeland Security 
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services 

Dear Mr. Cuccinelli,

I am writing on behalf of the National Coalition for Literacy to convey NCL’s significant concerns about the development process, administration procedures, and preparation requirements for the revised naturalization civics test that was released by USCIS in November 2020. NCL is an alliance of the leading national and regional organizations dedicated to advancing adult education, family literacy, and English language acquisition in the United States. Our comments on the revised civics test are based on insights provided by our member organizations, who have deep expertise in working with refugees, immigrants, and U.S.-born adults in need of educational opportunity. Based on this input, NCL opposes the implementation of the revised test and respectfully asks that USCIS continue using the 2008 version until a full review of the new one has demonstrated that it adheres to USCIS’ stated goal of producing a standardized, fair, and appropriate test that is not more difficult and does not decrease the pass rate. NCL further requests that USCIS plan for revision or elimination of the new test if the results of the review show that it is not equivalent to the 2008 one on these measures.

Preparation Requirements

The 2008 version of the civics test requires applicants to answer up to 10 questions from a list of 100; they must answer six correctly. In the 2020 version, 20 questions are asked from a list of 128 possible questions and answers, and applicants must correctly answer 12. To pass the 2020 version, then, applicants will have more content to learn (128 questions instead of 100), so more preparation time will be required. The increased content burden will also reduce the number of applicants who are able to prepare on their own; applicants will need to take a citizenship class, if they can find one that is available in their community. More applicants will fail the test at the first interview and will need to return for a second try, requiring more time off work and increased effort on their part. In light of these considerations, it seems likely that the 2020 test will impose a greater burden on test takers than the 2008 test.

Administration Procedures

The administration procedures for the 2020 test place a substantial additional burden on USCIS test administrators as well. In the 2008 version, as soon as the applicant answers six of the possible ten questions correctly, the test is ended. In the 2020 version, by contrast, the test must continue until the administrator has asked all 20 questions, regardless of when an applicant has answered 12 correctly. This will double the amount of time required for administering the civics test, and could potentially triple it in some cases—resulting in fewer interviews per day for each USCIS officer and thus increasing the length of time required for each applicant to obtain an appointment and complete the test. The resultant slowing of the testing process will have the overall effect of decreasing the pass rate.

Development Process

USCISS developed the 2008 civics test through an extended process of pilot testing, stakeholder input, item revision, and field testing, all of which took place in a fairly transparent way. The 2020 development process has involved considerably less communication outside of USCIS. As a result, the degree to which stakeholder input, including that of the Technical Advisory Group, was taken into account is not known, and the process and outcomes for field testing and item revision is unclear. Undoubtedly the test development process, particularly piloting and field testing, was impeded by the effects of the pandemic during the spring and summer of 2020; all the more reason to delay implementation of the revised test until a review of the development process assures that it is valid for all test takers, reliable across test administrations, and fair to both applicants and administrators.


Thank you for the opportunity to offer our comments and feedback regarding the revised civics test. Please feel free to contact us if we can provide further information on any of these points or on the overall process of making U.S. citizenship available to those who have so much to contribute to our nation’s strength and success. We look forward to the department’s thoughtful consideration of our recommendations and concerns.

Cordially,

Deborah Kennedy
Executive Director

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